Glossary of Common Sawing Terms

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Accuracy

The degree of conformity of a measurement to a standard or a true value. In metal sawing, accuracy is usually measured in thousandths of an inch per linear inch of deviation from a theoretical perpendicularity and parallelism to the plane of the machine bed.

Age Hardening

A process of aging that causes a change in properties. This change occurs slowly at room temperature and more rapidly at higher temperatures. This process increases both strength and hardness, but usually results in decreased ductility.

AISI

American Iron and Steel Institute

Alloy

Steel containing significant quantities of alloying elements added to cause changes in the mechanical and/or physical properties.

Annealing

Heating a metal to a specific temperature and then cooling the metal at a controlled rate, for the purpose of achieving one or more possible effects, including reduced hardness, better machinability, or reduced stress. There are several different types on annealing processes.

ASTM

American Society for Testing Materials.

Austentie

A solid solution in iron, of carbon or other solutes.

Back Clearance Angle

The angle of the back of a saw blade tooth.

Band Speed

The rate at which the band saw blade moves across the work to be cut. The rate is usually measured in surface feet per minute (s.f.m.) or meters per minute.

Band Tension

Tautness of the band saw blade caused by forcing the idler band wheel away from the drive band wheel. Measured in pounds per square inch.

Band Wheels

Wheels around which the band saw blade is tensioned.

Beam Strength

The strength of a band saw blade measured by its ability to resist deflection. The four major factors contributing to beam strength are the width of the blade, the gauge or the thickness of the blade, the amount of blade tension, and the span.

Bend Test

A test to detennine the ductility of metal. In metal cutting terms it applies to the flexing of a band saw blade to test the strength of the weld.

Bi-Metal

A high-speed steel edge material electron beam welded to a spring steel back. Such a construction provides the best combination of cutting performance and fatigue life.

Billet

A solid bar of semi-finished metal that has been hot worked by extrusion, forging, or rolling. Ranges in size from a minimum of about 1 1/2" to a maximum of about 40".

Blade Width

The dimension of the band saw blade from tooth tip to blade back.

Brinell Hardness

A test for determining the hardness of a metal by forcing a hard steel or carbide ball, of specified diameter, into the test material under a specified load.

Bundle Cutting

Putting multiple work pieces in an even stack to cut more than one piece at a time.

Burden

Fixed costs, also called "overhead".

Camber

Deviation from straightness of the band saw blade. When the blade is laid out flat it is positive camber if the curvature is in the direction of the teeth, and negative camber if the curvature is away from the teeth.

Carbide Tipped

Tooth with carbide tips welded to a high-strength alloy back, resulting in a longer lasting, smoother cutting blade.

Carbon Steel

Steel containing carbon up to about 2% and only residual amounts of the other elements except those added for de-oxidization.

Carbon Steel Blades

A band saw blade made from carbon steel where the teeth have been hardened to a greater hardness than the back.

Case Hardening

Hardening a ferrous alloy so that the outer portion is much harder than the inner portion. There are several different methods or processes for case hardening.

Chatter

Noise that sounds like a dull rumble caused by any number of factors including overfeeding, incorrect tooth selection, or improper band speed.

Chip Load

The average amount of tooth penetration into the material detennined by dividing the feed rate by the blade speed and multiplying the dividend by the number of teeth per foot of band saw blade.

Chip Weld

The bonding of a chip or portion of a chip to a tooth face. This is caused by softening the chip by elevated temperatures and subjecting the softened chip to extreme pressure.

Cold Work

Permanent strain produced in a metal by an external force causing plastic deformation. Usually increases hardness.

Coolant

See Cutting Fluid

Cutting Fluid

A liquid used to dissipate heat and lubricate the band saw blade teeth. The cutting fluid provides other benefits such as flushing the debris from the gullet.

Cutting Rate

The speed of cut measured in square inches of material cut per minute.

Dish

The concaved surface of material cut produced when the band saw blade deflects from a perpendicular path.

Depth of Penetration

The distance into the material the tooth tip penetrates for each cut.

Distance of Cut

The distance the blade travels from the point it enters the work to the point where the material is completely cut through.

Ductility

The ability of a metal to deform physically without fracturing.

Elastic Limit

The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any strain remaining after release of stress.

Fatigue

The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stresses having a maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material. Fatigue fractures are progressive, beginning as minute cracks that grow under action of fluctuating. stress.

Fatigue Life

The number of cycles a band saw blade can sustain prior to failure.

Feed Force

The pressure exerted by the band saw blade against the work piece measured in pounds.

Feed Rate

The linear travel of a band saw blade measured in inches per minute.

Feed Traverse Rate

The speed (in inches per minute) the saw frame travels without cutting.

Ferrous

Relating to or containing iron.

Finish

The surface condition of a work piece.

Flame Hardening

Quench hardening in which the heat is directly applied by flame.

Forging

Physically deforming metal into desired shapes with compressive force. This can be done with or without dies.

Free Machining

Characteristics of metal that make them easier to saw.

Gauge

The thickness of the back of a band saw blade measured in thousandths of an inch.

Gray Cast Iron

A cast iron that gives a gray fracture due to the presence of flake graphite. Often called gray iron.

Gullet

The space between two consecutive bandsaw blade teeth.

Gullet Capacity

The amount of chip that can curl up into the gullet area before the smooth curl becomes distorted.

Gullet Depth

The distance from the top of a tooth to the bottom of the gullet.

High Speed Steel

Tool steels which are specifically designed to maintain high hardness at elevated temperatures. Typical high speed steels used for band saw blade teeth include M2, matrix, and M42.

Hot Roll

A metal reduced in thickness by heating and then pressing between rollers.

Iron

A heavy malleable ductile magnetic silver-white metallic element that readily mists in moist air, occurs native in meteorites and is in most igneous rocks.

Kerf

The slot made in a work piece by the band saw blade.

Lubricity

A characteristic of a cutting fluid that reduces frictional contact between the metal being cut and the tooth face.

Machinability

The relative ease of machining a metal.

Nitriding

Introducing nitrogen into a solid alloy by holding at a suitable temperature in contact with a nitrogenous material usually ammonia of the molten cyanide of appropriate composition.

Pickling

Chemical surface treatment of metals to remove oxides.

Pitch

The number of teeth per inch in a saw blade.

Quench Hardening

Hardening a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then rapid cooling.

Rake Angle

The angle formed by the tooth face with respect to a perpendicular line from the back edge of a band saw blade.

Raker Set

The saw tooth pattern in which one tooth is set to the right, one tooth is set to the left, and one tooth is unset.

SAE

Society of Automotive Engineers.

Saw Guides

The rollers and/or carbide blocks on both sides of the band saw blade which secure the blade so that the cutting action of the blade may occur.

Scale

A coating of oxide on the surface of metals.

Set

The offset of some or all of the teeth on a band saw blade to provide side clearance so that the back of the blade clears the material as the blade passes through.

Slugging

Sawing blanks or "slugs'" for subsequent machining operation.

Stress Relieving

Heating to a suitable temperature, holding long enough to reduce residual stresses.

Structural Shape

A piece of metal in anyone of several designs including "H" beams, "I'" beams, channels, angle iron, tubing and others as designated by the iron and steel industries. A shape generally must have at least 1 of its dimensions (excluding length) 3 inches or greater. Smaller shapes are often classified as "Bar Size Shapes".

Tack Welds

Small scattered welds used to hold workpieces when nesting.

Temper

In heat treatment, reheating hardened steel or cast iron for deereasing the hardness and increasing the toughness.

Toughness

The ability of a metal to defonn plastically before fracturing.

Tooth Face

The surface of a band saw blade tooth on which a chip forms.

Tooth Form

The shape of the tooth, which includes spacing, rake angle, and gullet capacity. Industry terms include variable, variable positive, standard, skip, and hook.

Tooth Life

The useful life of a band saw blade measured in square inches of material cut by the blade.

Tooth Pitch

The distance (in inches) between tooth tips.

Tooth Set

The pattern in which teeth are offset from the blade. Industry terms include raker, van-raker, alternate, and wavy.

Tracking

The alignment of the band saw blade on the band wheel so that it is properly in line with the band wheel flanges and saw guides.

Width of Cut

The distance the saw tooth travels continuously "across the work.". The point where a tooth enters the work to the point where that same tooth exits the work.

Work Hardening

Hardening of a work piece caused by cold working and failure to penetrate the metal by a band saw blade. May be caused by dull blades improper blade selection, excessive band speed or improper feed force.